Archive for December, 2013

Disaster relief

CHINDIA ALERT: You'll be living in their world, very soon

Twenty-nine years have passed since a poison gas leak from the Union Carbide pesticide plant in Bhopal killed thousands of people. For the estimated 100,000  survivors and their children who cope with birth defects, illness and a variety of other health problems, it might as well still be the 1980s.

It was 12 a.m. on Dec. 3, 1984 when 40 tons of toxic methyl isocyanate leaked from the plant. In the J.P. Nagar neighbourhood that was worst affected, many people died instantly. The death toll is more than 5,295, according to the Indian government though projections based on an Indian Council of Medical Research study put the figure as high as 25,000. An estimated 574,372 people have been affected in some way by the gas; health activists say more than 150,000 have been seriously affected.

Lung and eye complications are common among people in this area. Many also suffer from

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Bjp clean sweep

CHINDIA ALERT: You'll be living in their world, very soon

India\’s main opposition BJP is set to form a government in three key states after winning an absolute majority in assembly elections.

India’s main opposition Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) supporters celebrate the party’s victory in various state Assembly elections in Allahabad, India, Sunday, Dec. 8, 2013

The Hindu nationalist party has won 162 assembly seats in the northern state of Rajasthan, leaving the ruling Congress with just 21 seats.

The BJP also retained power in the central states of Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh.

It won 165 seats against the Congress\’ 58 in Madhya Pradesh.

But the contest was much closer in Chhattisgarh where the BJP won 49 seats – just three more than the majority needed to form a government – and the Congress finished its tally at 39.

The Congress party also lost control of Delhi\’s 70-seat assembly.

With 31 seats, the BJP fell four short of a majority to form a government in the capital after a surprise strong showing by a new anti-corruption Aam Admi Party (

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“Corruption is a barrier to achieving the Millennium Development Goals and needs to be taken into account in defining and implementing a robust post-2015 development agenda.”- Ban Ki-moon, Message for International Anti-Corruption Day 9, December 2013.


On 31 October 2003, the General Assembly adopted the United Nations Convention against Corruption and requested that the Secretary-General designate the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) as secretariat for the Convention’s Conference of States Parties.

The Assembly also designated 9 December as International Anti-Corruption Day, to raise awareness of corruption and of the role of the Convention in combating and preventing it.The Convention entered into force in December 2005.

The “Your NO Counts” campaign is a joint international campaign created by the United Nations Development Programme and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime to mark International Anti-Corruption Day (9 December) and raise awareness about corruption and how to…

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gender inequality

Posted: December 9, 2013 in Current affairs

India’s abysmal gender inequality statistics seem to have taken a turn for the worse. New data shows the country’s Gender Inequality Index (GII) worsened between 2008 and 2011, and India now ranks 129 out of 146 countries on the GII, better only than Afghanistan in south Asia.

On the Human Development Index (HDI), India ranks 134 out of 187 countries. When inequality is factored in, it experiences a 30% drop in its human development values, ranking 129 out of 146 nations.

The GII, introduced by the UN Development Programme last year, measures female disadvantage in three areas: reproductive health as measured by the maternal mortality ratio and the adolescent fertility rate, empowerment measured by seats in Parliament and proportion with at least secondary education, and the labour force participation rate.

India’s decline is accounted for by a fall in its female labour force participation rate and a worsening of its adolescent fertility rate. Rural development minister Jairam Ramesh, who helped release the 2011 UNDP Human Development Report in New Delhi on Wednesday, claimed that a decline in female labour force participation could indicate improved status for women or better education opportunities. However, the UNDP report shows that the proportion of women with at least secondary education is still just half that of men. Globally, richer countries with higher human development have higher female labour force participation too.

Within India’s neighbourhood, Sri Lanka has overtaken China on human development and with an HDI of 0.691, is now within touching distance of the “high human development” category. Sri Lanka performs particularly well on gender equality indicators; its maternal mortality ratio is the same as Russia’s.

“Economic growth is a necessary but not sufficient condition for human development. Recent data shows that high growth states like Gujarat have worse human development measures, particularly on malnutrition, than many of the northern states,” Ramesh said. He went on to praise the role of non-government players, including Anna Hazare, in bringing about a change in sanitation.

The 2011 report focuses on sustainability and the impact of environmental degradation on the poor. By 2050, the average HDI could drop by 12% in south Asia due to the effects of global warming on agricultural production, access to clean water and pollution, the report says.

While reiterating his stance that the “real drivers of unsustainability are the developed countries, worst of all the US, which won’t even engage with this debate”, Ramesh added that just as consumption-heavy lifestyles in the industrialized world affected livelihoods in the developing world, “lifestyles within India also affect the livelihoods of the poor within India”.


1. What makes one successful and another failure in Mains?
All the candidates are having books, all the candidates are dedicated to work and most of them attend coaching institutions, take guidance from seniors and friends but what makes one success and another failure. Students say they studied for 18 hours and still they couldn’t make mains. Others say they studied only for 8-9 hours and could make mains. Why these differences. The difference between successful candidates and the failure candidates is same as difference between ordinary and extra-ordinary persons.

One who is able to make mains never counts the hours and how many books he/she has read. But they know what to read, what not to read, how much to read, how to use when required writing the answers. Civil Service exam never wants one to be ideal. It requires creativity, innovativeness within the candidates, who lack to use his/her knowledge properly they feel tough to clear the exam. Before starting the preparation find out properly what to read, what not to read, what types of question are asked from particular topics. After taking guidance from others put your own strategy, don’t follow their strategy it may not be suitable for you,

Better strategy makes one success in mains.

2. Going through Syllabus
This year there is change in the syllabus of General-Studies and also optional paper. Don’t get tense when somebody says there is change in syllabus. Civil Service exam tries to select candidates who are creative and innovative and aware of day to day life. Accordingly, syllabus has been changed.

First go through General Studies syllabus thoroughly and try to be perfect with the syllabi. If you know syllabus, 20% of your work is over. It helps you what to read and what not to read. Don’t neglect the added syllabus. Always questions will be asked from the new syllabus. Try to think what type of questions may come from particular topic. What is the relevance of particular topic in today’s life?

In the same way go through the added topics of both optional and try to cover them first. Old candidates may know other parts of the syllabus only added syllabus they have to be perfect. New-comers have to know whole syllabus before starting their studies.

3. Having balanced approach towards Optional
Candidates have to select too optiona1 for mains. Most of the candidates take one optional same for both prelims and mains. Some may have different optional papers for prelims and two different optionals for mains. Both the optional papers should be given same weightage. Don’t neglect the optional which you were having for prelims.. Don’t think already that you have studied for prelims and can give less time for mains. There are many students who are unable to score more than 300 marks in first optional but easily they can score more than 300 marks in second optional. This is because way of approach for study differs. Student might know concepts but unable to use where it is required. Therefore study both optionals simultaneously. Marks of both optional are important to be successful in exam.

Considering question number 1 and 5 is equally important Question number 1 and 5 play very important role in getting good score. From both the optionals we have 480 marks for these questions. Therefore, practice writing short answers while preparing. Study previous year questions and analyze what type of questions has been asked from particular topics. Try to cover all the points within 200 words. Read the questions properly and answer according to the nature of the question. While studying try to note down topics where short notes can be asked and write points for that topic and keep. That will help during revision.

4. Exclusive skills for presenting answer
After the prelims exams and till the exam date everyone study. But, in Civil Service main exam only studying is not important. But here important is how one is using his knowledge to write particular paper within three hours. What one writes during these three hours makes one topper and anther failure. Here how much you studied it doesn’t matter, but how you are using your knowledge to write particular answer. Therefore while studying, always think what type of questions may be asked from particular topics and what points to be included to make different from others.

Many times we hear students saying they have done their exams very well. Question paper was very easy. But still they are unable to make mains. Why? When question paper is given they never try to read full question. If they come across the words they know they start writing answers. They might have written wrong answer also. There they make mistakes. First, study questions properly and understand what has been asked. Then think what to be written for that answer. Write up to the point answers. While writing 60 marks answers follow one strategy. When you read question, take always last page of your answer booklet and start writing the points what all to be included in that answer. Because while writing suddenly you may forget the points, these points give hints to continue the answer and make to be within the track. .

Don’t repeat the paragraphs. If graphs, pie-charts, flow charts are required draw them to make examiner know what you have written. Always follow word-limit. If you think you know more about that answer and start writing more on that answer, you cannot complete the paper within a given time. Always try to give positive points. Don’t mention anybody’s name. Write such type of inputs which makes your answer different from others.

5. Current Affairs
Current Affairs play leading role in the Civil Service main exam. Students try to buy many current affairs magazine and they think they studied more instead of that studied from one magazine and be a regular reader of newspaper. Whatever you read, try to make note of it, It helps to revise. Without revising you cannot remember the points. Study previous years question paper and try to analyse what type of questions have been asked from current affairs. See whether there is any change in asking questions from one year to another.

General Studies first paper contains national affairs, social issues, geographical issues and etc. And General Studies second paper includes international affairs, economics, science and technology, statistics. All these topics are related to current affairs. Therefore concentrate more on current affairs. The students having stronghold on current affairs are able to score more than 300 marks in General Studies. Current Affairs also play leading role optional. Same of the optionals like Public Administration, Political Science, Science, and Sociology require current trends. Therefore one must be aware what type of current affairs is required for particular topic. Here one should remember only reading current affairs never give marks. Try to revise it again and again and you will be able to recollect during the exam. Preparing current affairs should be continuous process and don’t think some days can be allotted for it.

6. Two marker questions and 20 words
Always small things make great thing happen. That means, too marker questions are very important to score more than 300 marks in General Studies. Usually students think, it’s only two marks, they can write them without any strategy. But when you really sit for writing you will understand how much difficult are those. To write these questions you must evolve good strategy. While reading newspaper you may come across some personalities, places and terms try to write on them about in 20 words. Keep on practicing. If answer is written up to the mark you can get full marks. If you ask any topper, he always says that he gave importance to two markers.

To make yourself different from others, prepare your own strategy in order to study these two marks questions. Go through previous years questions and try to write yourself for those questions. While reading any newspaper, magazine or book, note down the words and write on that topic.

In exam hall, write up to the point. This can come only by practice. Questions will be from Indian polity, economies, history, culture, science and technology, geographical concepts, personalities. While studying, make different note on different topics thus it helps to revise properly.

7. Selective Study
All the candidates who are preparing for civil service main examination know the importance of selective study. Being selective is how much useful in preparation how it makes one comfortable.

When students, who are preparing for examination, see the vast syllabus, they find themselves in confusing state. It is like throwing one into the sea; That means syllabus is so vast if they sit for preparing simply without making any selection. One needs complete one year to read whole syllabus. By that time exams are on the head, candidates are not fully prepared in each topic and after reading the entire syllabus they are not even in position to tackle anyone question perfectly. Therefore, selective study is very important in civil service preparation. One should know what to study, what to be given more importance, what not to be studied and etc.

Once study whole syllabus completely. They should take some 3-4 previous year question .papers and study the topics thoroughly. This help to decide on which topics frequently questions are asked and on which topic analytical questions are coming, on which topic short questions are coming and so on. By going through previous year question paper one can understand what to study’ in current affairs. This makes one to be selective while reading newspapers.’ Otherwise one has to spend more time on newspapers.

Syllabus of optional subjects are also vast, sp candidates often have many books to cover the topics but they cannot read all of them so here also being selective is very important. Try to read standard books and recollect the points what you have read and how it is useful in writing the answers. Selective study hopes you to answer any question asked on that topic.

Most of the toppers follow strategy of being selective. It is not wise to waste time in reading which is not required for the exam. One should have proper approach towards study the optional subjects to get success at mains.

8. Importance of Compulsory Papers
English and any other Indian language and one essay paper are compulsory for civil service main examination. Its nature is of qualifying nature so often candidates think that hey easily can write them and clear these papers. But after each result actually we see that many students are unable to clear language papers. Even some candidates await there result positively and actually they did very well at there exam but finally language papers create a big hurdle. So never underestimate these too language papers and do not neglect them. Here their importance is more. Without qualifying these papers, you cannot at mains. Therefore, they cannot be neglected. These are considered as first step to clear mains. Therefore, be perfect with grammar, essay writing, precise writings.

The students who are getting good marks in essay can definitely get success in mains. Essay paper plays important role in getting good rank. This paper is for 200 marks. One Who writes good essay can get upto 140 marks. This makes great difference between an ordinary student and an extra-ordinary student. To write essay one should have comprehensive thinking. While preparing, don’t prepare a few topics. Prepare general way. Select topics like global warming, social change, and development-oriented topics, globalization, terrorism, democracy’ and prepare on these’ topics in general way.

Particular topics won’t be asked in the exam. But whatever you have studied can be used in anyway while writing essay. Read all the topics of essay at least once, and then select which topic you feel comfortable. Then take last page of your answer booklet and note down all the points you know so that you will not forget the main points while you writing the essay. Then arrange the points in accordance with their importance and there should be continuation of paragraphs. . .

Always write common language, don’t use complicated words and don’t bring optional concepts into the essay.’ Essay paper also marks the assessment of your personality. Therefore be careful while choosing the topics and while writing the essay paper.

9. 2600 Marks to be covered in 100 days
Civil Service Main Examination is an examination of 2600 marks. In that two compulsory language papers have 300 marks each. They are qualifying papers and are important to clear the main examination. After preliminary examination there will be 150 days available for preparing for mains; But while choosing second optional and collecting books candidates waste some 40 to 50 days. Only reaming will be 100 days to go far mains. these 100 days are crucial for everyone. Aspirants have to cover some 100 topics in optional and some 100 topics in General Studies.

To achieve one’s goal within 100 days, one has to follow proper strategy. Planning is very important to complete studies. 100 days can be split into two parts: first 80 days for studying and remaining 20 days for revision. Main examination requires how you analytically think over the .topic. Therefore, revision helps one to know how one can recollect the points. Study all the subjects simultaneously. Equal weightege should be given to all the papers. According to your comfortability with subject allot your time for study and make planning every week. Change the planning according to the topics to be covered.
Planning helps to use 100 days fruitfully to achieve the goal.

10. What to follow: during preparation and in examination hall
(a) Read limited books. Don’t try to read more books. Read fewer books and gain more from them. Read only one or two newspapers and follow anyone book on current affairs.

Reading more books make you what to remember or not.
(b) Be selective while reading a newspaper. From the beginning of your preparation build the habit of reading what is important from the exam point of view. Spend only 45 minutes to 60 minutes for newspaper daily.

(c) Always plan your studies. For a week and also for a day. This helps to complete the syllabus within a time.

(d) In the name of selective study don’t leave what to be studied. Don’t go only for popular topics study what may be asked in the mains.

(e) Prepare your own notes. But don’t spend more time in preparing notes. Make point-wise notes which can be reversed very easily with less time.

(f) Don’t run from difficult topics. Get clarified from somebody else and simply don’t leave difficult topics. Don’t give importance to what you know. Give less time for what you know and more time for studying difficult topics.

(g) Make more and more practices for writing answers. Don’t be lazy. At least p1ake the
habit of writing points to be included in that answer.

(h) While writing answer in examination hall, I don’t cross the word-limit. If you cross the word I limit, you cannot manage to write all the answers.

(i) Statistics carries 40’marks in General Studies. Give importance to this section while II
preparation and also in the examination hall. In the examination hall, keep last 20 minutes for statistics and don’t take it first. Practice makes you to solve the problem within a time limit.

(J) Last point is very important. Don’t be hurry while reading the question paper. Read slowly word by word and you can understand what is asked. Otherwise, there is a chance of writing wrong answer. Therefore, follow questions’ properly.